Jesaja 13-14 – God is in beheer van die wêreldgeskiedenis

Jesaja maak hier ‘n aantal uitsprake teen Babel – 13-14:23 (vgl 21:1-10 ook), Assirië (14:24-27) en die Filistyne (14:28-32).  Tussenin is daar ’n heilsprofesie vir die verenigde volk van Juda en Israel (14:1-4).

So ’n bietjie agtergrond oor die nasies wat hier genoem word:

  • Babel – In die tyd van Jesaja was hulle ’n toekomstige mag, die sogenaamde Neo-Babiloniese ryk van Nebukadnesar, wat Assirië se mag eers ’n eeu later kon breek, met die val van Nineve in 612 v C.  Hulle wêreldryk het ongeveer 70 jaar geduur tot hulle op hul beurt deur die Persiese wêreldryk vervang is.  Die profesie van Jesaja gaan dus eers in vervulling in 539 v C toe Babilon deur Kores van die Perse en Mediërs verower is.  Die stad Babilon is in die huidige Irak.
  • Assirië – Dit was ’n baie groot empire wat sedert 1120 onder Tiglat-Pileser I vir 5 eeue die wêreldtoneel met opeenvolgende dinastieë oorheers het. Hulle beset op dié stadium ook die stad Babilon.
  • Filistyne – Dit was die seestrook langs Israel van Joppe in die noorde tot Gasa in die suide, vandag bekend as die Gasa-strook, waar steeds groot konflik tussen die Israelis aan die een kant en die Palestynse en Arabiese bevolking aan die ander kant heers.

13:1-22 Teen Babel.  Let op na 4 goed:

  1. Dit is die hoogmoed en boosheid van die trotse stad Babilon gebreek word eerder as hulle afgodsdiens per se (vers 11).  Net ’n klein oorblyfsel sal oorbly (skaarser as goud).  Die res van die nasies wat in Babilon saamgetrek is, sal terugkeer na hulle eie lande.
  2. Die verwoesting word in kosmiese terme beskryf wat duidelik metaforiese taal is (vers 10, 13 – vgl Joël 2:30-31 soos aangehaal in Hand 2:19-20).  Dit leer ons om nie te letterlik met sulke uitsprake om te gaan nie.
  3. Die wreedaardigheid van oorlog word baie grafies uitgebeeld – babatjies word papgeslaan en vrouens word verkrag (vers 16).  Dit is inderdaad ’n wrede dag (vers 9).  Die wreedheid lê egter in die dinge wat die leër doen, nie in die eerste plek in wat God doen nie.
  4. Die leër wat die verwoesting uitvoer (vers 4-5) word met die Mediërs geïdentifiseer (vers 17).

14:1-4a – Ontferming vir Juda en Jerusalem.  Dit is interessant dat die orakel onderbreek word deur ’n heilsprofesie wat dui op die nuwe toekoms wat na die val van Babel vir die verenigde volk, Juda en Israel, sal aanbreek.  Onthou net dat Jerusalem egter steeds ingesluit word by die oordeelsorakels in hoofstuk 22.  Hierdie verlossing kom dus eers ná die verwoesting.

Dit tref my hier hoe die beskrywing insluit dat Juda teruggehelp word deur ander – edik van Darius? – en dat ander volke by hulle aansluit.  Teenoor die nasies in Babel wat teruggaan na hulle eie lande toe, sluit nasies hier aan by die Godsvolk.  Die droom vir die nasies bly steeds lewendig, en is verbind aan wat God met sy volk doen.

14:4b-23 – Spotlied teen Babel.  Daar is groot blydskap oor die val van die verdrukker.  Dit tref my dat dit nie net die mense is wat bly is nie, maar metafories gesproke ook die doderyk en sy leiers (nogal ’n ironiese prentjie van dooie konings wat op trone in die doderyk sit!).  Jesaja sê selfs die bome is bly oor die val van Babilon omdat hulle nie meer afgekap sal word vir die grootskaalse bouwerk in die stad nie (14:8)!

Babel word hier die helder môrester – in Latyn Lucifer – genoem en in metaforiese taal beskryf as ’n entiteit wat na goddelike status gestreef het (konings in daardie tyd was inderdaad soms as gode beskou), maar inteendeel ’n groot terminale val gehad het.  Sy naam word nie eers in gedagtenis gehou nie (vers 20), so groot en volledig is sy val.  Die koning word met ’n besem weggevee (vers 23)!  ’n Mens vind ’n soortgelyke gedagtegang oor Tirus in Esegiël 28.

14:24-27 – Teen Assirië. Dieselfde lot as vir Babel sal die Assiriërs tref.  Hoewel dit eintlik ’n soort nagedagte is – vergelyk die vorige oordeelsprofesieë teen Assirië in hoofstuk 10 (ellende wag vir Assirië – 10:5) – word dit hier ingesluit om die volledigheid van God se oordeel te beklemtoon.  Dit berei die leser ook voor vir hoofstukke 15-23 wat in die tyd van die Assiriese oorheersing gelewer is.

14:28-32 – Teen die Filistyne. Hierdie orakel word gedateer in die jaar van koning Agas, kleinseun van Ussia, se dood (718 of 715 v C).  Waarskynlik word hier verwys na pogings om onder die juk van die Assiriërs uit te kom, deur met Juda ’n alliansie te sluit, maar wat deur God gefnuik sal word.  Daarteenoor sal die Here sy volk beskerm.

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Jesaja


Chris van Wyk

Ek is gemeenteleraar by Somerstrand gemeente, Port Elizabeth. My passie in die lewe is om God bo alles te dien en gelowiges in geloofsvorming te begelei. I am pastor at Summerstrand congregation, Port Elizabeth. My passion in life is to serve God above all and to lead believers in faith formation.

Comments (2)

  • HI Chris,
    Ek soek net n bietjie duidelikheid oor Jesaja 14 en spesifiek verse 13 to 15, wie “klim op tot bokant die wolke en word soos die Allerhoogste self”? Tweedens, is ek reg as ek se dit is satan wat af stort tot in die doderyk (vers15).
    Ek vra die, want ek het hierdie verse, spesifiek vers 14 erens gelees en ek probeer dit net in konteks plaas.
    Groete
    Bruce

    • Hi Bruce

      Jesaja profeteer in hoofstuk 14 die toekomstige verval van die koning van Babel. Hy gebruik beskrywings wat herinner aan die val van Satan uit die hemel. Ek haal uit Michael Heiser se uitstekende boek Unseen Realm aan:

      In Isaiah 14:4, God tells the prophet to take up a “taunt” (Hebrew: mashal ) against the king of Babylon. A mashal is better described as a comparative parable. The question to keep in mind as we proceed is, to whom is the king of Babylon being compared? 1 The beginning of the parable sounds as unfavorable to the king of Babylon as Ezekiel’s description of the prince of Tyre is to that ruler. The king of Babylon is called an “oppressor” ( ESV ; v. 4) who ruthlessly persecuted the nations (vv. 5–6). The world will finally be at rest when the oppressor is “laid low” ( ESV ; vv. 7–8). In anticipation of the joy of finally being rid of the king of Babylon, the prophet writes: 9  Sheol below is getting excited over you, to meet you when you come; it arouses the dead spirits [ rephaim ] for you, all of the leaders of the earth [ ʾerets ]. It raises all of the kings of the nations from their thrones. 10  All of them will respond and say to you, “You yourself also were made weak like us! You have become the same as us!” 11  Your pride is brought down to Sheol, and the sound of your harps; maggots are spread out beneath you like a bed, and your covering is worms (Isa 14:9–11). As in Ezekiel 28 , the figure in Isaiah 14 who is the target of its diatribe goes to Sheol, the underworld. The Rephaim are there, here identified again as the dead warrior-kings (“you have become the same as us”). The king of Babylon will be one of these living dead, just like the prince of Tyre. Recall that Ezekiel 28 shifted from the prince of Tyre to a divine figure in Eden. That shift informed us that the writer was using a story of cosmic, divine rebellion to, by comparison, portray the arrogance of the earthly prince. After verse 11, Isaiah 14 shifts to a divine context with clear links to Ezekiel 28 . Those connections in turn take us conceptually back to Genesis 3 . Isaiah 14:12–15 reads: 12  How you have fallen from heaven, morning star, son of dawn! You are cut down to the ground, conqueror of nations! 13  And you yourself said in your heart, “I will ascend to heaven; I will raise up my throne above the stars of God; and I will sit on the mountain of assembly on the summit of Zaphon; 14  I will ascend to the high places of the clouds, I will make myself like the Most High.” 15  But you are brought down to Sheol, to the depths of the pit (Isa 14:12–15). The divine council context is transparent. You’ve already seen much of the terminology in chapter 6 about divine gardens and mountains. The figure to whom the king of Babylon is being compared is a divine being fallen “from heaven” (v. 12). He is called the “morning star, son of dawn.” The language takes us back to Job 38:7, where the sons of God were called “morning stars.” But the Hebrew terms in Isaiah 14:12 are different than those in Job 38:7. “Morning star, son of dawn” is an English rendering of the Hebrew helel ben-shachar , which literally means “shining one, son of the dawn.” When we talked about Job 38:7 in chapter 3 , I noted that “morning stars” were the visible bright stars seen on the horizon as the sun rose. Astronomers (ancient and modern) knew another celestial object that behaved the same way—an object so bright it could still be seen as the sun rose. That object was Venus, and so Venus, though a planet, became known to the ancients as the “bright morning star.” In essence, borrowing the language of Ezekiel 28 , Isaiah portrays this particular divine being as hopelessly enamored of his own brilliance. So great was his arrogance that he declared himself above all the “stars of God” ( kokebey el ), the other members of the divine council (Job 38:7). That this “shining one” sought superiority over the other members of the divine council is indicated by the phrase “raise … my throne” and his desire to “sit” on “the mountain of assembly.” That this “mountain of assembly” speaks of the divine council is clear from its location in “Zaphon” (“the north”; tsaphon ) and the clouds. The “seat” language is familiar from Ezekiel 28:2 (the “seat of the gods”). Isaiah 14 reads like an attempted coup in the divine council. Helel ben-shachar wanted his seat in the divine assembly on the divine mountain to be above all others. He wanted to be “like the Most High” ( elyon ). But there can be only one of those. It’s no surprise that helel ben-shachar , the shining one, meets the same end as the divine throne guardian in Ezekiel 28 . In three places we see his fate. You’ve seen two of the verses already. Take note of the emphasis in bold: 9  Sheol below is getting excited over you, to meet you when you come; it arouses the dead spirits for you, all of the leaders of the earth. It raises all of the kings of the nations from their thrones.… 12  “How you have fallen from heaven, morningstar, son of dawn! You are cut down to the ground [ ʾerets ].… 15  But you are brought down to Sheol , The punishment of helel is to live in the realm of the dead. Helel ends up in Sheol, the pit ( bor ); brought down to earth ( ʾerets ) by God, the truly Most High.

      Jy kan meer lees op die Internet waar Michael ekstra stof daaroor gee: https://www.moreunseenrealm.com/ch11/

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